Inca society was made up of the Nobility of blood, privilege and the people. This Inca social organization had as its central unit and axis the Ayllu, which was a group of settlers united by a bond.
For Inca society, duality and quadripartition were very important, that is why there is a division of Cusco into 2 parts: In Hanan Cusco and Hurin Cusco. The tahuantinsuyo was divided into four parts: Chinchaysuyo, Collasuyo, Antisuyo and Contisuyo that had the city of Cusco, the navel of the world, as its capital axis.
The Inca was considered the son of the sun and for that reason he was sacred, he wore a mascaipacha, he was carried on litters and dressed in very fine clothes, the sovereign was at the top of the nobility, that is to say, of the Cusco elite that was formed by three groups:
They headed the Inca society and it was made up of the great authorities of the Inca empire by the Inca, the Auqui who was the son of the Inca and the Colla who was the wife of the Inca.
2. The royalty
This group of Inca society was made up of the “royal panacas” that is to say by the entire royal family “the blood nobility” made up of Inca descendants and “the privileged nobility” made up of people awarded by the Inca due to their valuable services provided to the state.
Before its period of expansion and apogee the Inca social organization was quite simple, the highest hierarchy was made up of the 16 panacas and among them the Cusco rulers were chosen, where the ayllus of the more recent Incas had more prestige than the ayllus of the oldest Incas.
The current monastery of San Antonio de Abad was previously part of the Yachay Wasi, which was the place where the Inca nobility studied. Among the young people of the nobility, the “huarachico” was performed, which was a ceremony of physical skill when they reached puberty, the panacas they behave like political factions that establish alliances and build conspiracies. In Tahuantinsuyo, each curacazgo was divided into two halves that corresponded to “hanan” above and “hurin” below.
Each of these halves was governed by a Curaca, one of the curacas was always subordinate to the other, that was the Andean principle of duality.
3. The village
The Inca people were made up of a series of groups called Ayllus, of which we have the Hatun Runes, who were the peasants; the Mitimaes who were the subjects transferred by the Incas within the empire; and finally, the yanaconas who were the servants of the elite. Contact between the nobility and the people was made through the local curacas.
Women in Inca Society
The feminine power was very important, the collas were not women subjected to the Inca and the Inca did not have total power over her as it has been tried to make believe through Peruvian history. The figure of women in the Inca empire was very important, even some historians comment on the belief that they could speak to the hills.
The role of the colla was as important as the role of the Inca and then came those women called “Iñacas” who are representatives of the different regions and localities, including it is said that they were the ones who organized the entire agricultural calendar, the entire production calendar and the ritual calendar.
The most prominent women in the founding myths are Mama Ocllo and Mama Huaco. Manco Cápac’s partner was Mama Huaco, who was a very powerful woman even with thaumaturgical powers that allowed her to speak with the hills.
Being she the one in charge to establish the matrilineal lineage, Mama Huaco the mother of the next Inca that happens to Manco Cápac that was Sinchi Roca, being she who would be in charge to place the mascaipacha.
According to another historian, he indicates that Mama Huaco was not only Manco Cápac’s partner, but also her mother. Being Mama Huaco the prototype of a warrior woman unlike Mama Ocllo, the second wife of Manco Cápac, with a much more submissive and homey personality.
The Acllahuasi in the Inca Society
The Acllahuasi or house of the chosen ones was not a cloistered nunnery as the Europeans believed, but they were textile art workshops where chosen and captive women worked, which were used by the state, who received a very good reward accommodation, food and even jewelry in some cases. There were several Acllahuasis in Tahuantinsuyo, Quito, Pachacamac, Lima, Ollantaytambo and in Cusco.
In the Inca empire, the men were in charge of the expansion, however, the mission of consolidating and annexing each site that they were conquering fell on women, that is why there are more than 40 Acllahuasis, spaces of power throughout Tahuantinsuyo. feminine in which they consolidated local governments. They were in charge of the local administration in each place of the Tahuantinsuyo.